Yi Jing (I Ching WG) - The Book of Changes

yin yang,I ching,baguo

The Yi Jing ‘Book of Changes’ is foremost among the five ancient classics of China. Kongfuzi (Confucius) said “If years were added to my life, I would dedicate fifty to study the ‘Yi Jing’, then I might approach perfection” (Analects 7.16) . “The Yi Jing thinks of nothing, does nothing; in tranquility, unmoving, it fathoms what is at the back of everything in the world” (Great Appendix to the Yi Jing). Many great scholars have studied the ‘Yi Jing’ ( which is still widely known as ‘I Ching’ following the Wade Giles system) as a source of contemplation and reflection. Marcel Granet has described it as “the Cosmos in capsule form”. It served as a broad method for characterizing all things, people, events and situations systematically. As many objects and actions are associated with a particular hexagram it was used as a proto-science - putting everything in its appropriate logical category. Joseph Needham used the term ‘resonance’ to describe each hexagram's relationship to the world. In Imperial China its influence was all pervasive. The Qing dynasty Emperor Kangxi’s edition of the I Ching had by 1715 accumulated no less than 218 commentaries written by esteemed scholars. The Emperor ‘never tired’ of studying it, spending over six months studying it - twice - and consulted the book to determine such things as the just punishment of rebels. He considered it of great depth touching on both fortune-telling and morality.

It is called ‘Book of Changes’ because it is rooted in transformation. In the classic divination method two hexagrams are cast at the same time, the one changing to the other representing past and present or present and future.

Feng Shui, Confucianism and Yin/Yang all contribute to the ‘(Book of Changes ’). Nowadays it is best known as a popular fortune telling system, but its foundations go far deeper. It builds ‘hexagrams’ made up of six lines that are each either yang (solid) or yin (broken). A hexagram is termed a guà in Chinese. It can be thought of as a combination of two trigrams stacke on top of each other; each trigram is made up of three lines. These eight trigrams (bagua ) are shown surrounding the traditional taiji (yin-yang) figure in the illustration. Two trigrams combine together to give the six lines that represent one of all the 64 possible hexagrams. For more on the numerical properties and associations of the trigrams see our Luo Shu (magic square) section.

yi jing, divination
Presentation box of 64 divining sticks for Yi Jing divination

Fortune telling

The Yi Jing was consulted for scientific inquiry (for example in alchemy) and astronomy as hexagrams are associated with both the lunar and daily (solar) cycles. Each particular day of the month or time of day had its own associated hexagram. From this evolved the practice of doing certain actions on particular days and at particular times. The yin-yang division is a binary system and this stimulated Leibniz in the 18th century to believe that the Chinese had developed a binary counting system centuries before the West, however this is not true, the Yi Jing had never been used for counting. Because it claimed to provide an explanatory system for all things it became an obstacle to further scientific development and was incompatible with western science when this reached China in the late 19th century. The great scholar Joseph Needham considers that Chinese scientists ‘would have been better to tie a millstone round the neck of the Yi Jing and cast it into the sea.’

Yi Jing, I Ching, Song dynasty
A page from a Song Dynasty (960-1279) printed book of the I Ching (Yi Jing, Classic of Changes or Book of Changes) , 17.7x11.9cm, printed book, in the National Central Library in Taipei. Image by Song era print artist available under a Creative Commons License

To consult the I Ching, a person makes six choices between yin/yang; short/long; broken/straight; or heads/tails. Each line is called a yáo and is represented by the number 9 for yang yángyáo or 6 for yin yīnyáo. The meaning and interpretation are strongly influenced by the two trigrams that make up the gua, for example the trigrams for ‘water’ ( kǎn) and ‘fire’ ( lí) combine to give hexagram 63 (jì jì ) which has the meaning of ‘transformation’ as water puts out fire and also fire dries out dampness.

Some idea of the pervasiveness of the Yi Jing can be seen from the belief that the invention of wooden boats was stimulated by the book. The hexagram 59 is associated with the wood element and is composed of ‘wind’ over ‘water’. The commentary states that it is advantageous for crossing a great stream and this suggests wood is the suitable material to use for making boats.

History of the I Ching

The Yi Jing dates back about 3,000 years when it was probably used purely for divination. Although it is claimed to date from the start of the Zhou dynasty there is no direct evidence to support this. The oldest text is called Zhōuyì after the name of the dynasty and attributed to legendary Emperor Fuxi (c. 2800 BCE) and King Wen of Zhou . It was certainly used in China during the Zhou dynasty long before the birth of Confucius (551BCE). To the ancient text were added ten commentaries attributed to Confucius that are called the ‘ten wings’; but these were probably written long after Confucius during the Han dynasty. Yì can be translated as ‘easy’ as well as ‘changes’ possibly because this method of divination was quicker and easier than analyzing the previous method of studying the pattern of cracks on oracle bones. It is the Yi Jing commentaries that have as great a value as the hexagrams themselves, they reveal much about Chinese thought, history and philosophy. Daoists just as much as followers of Confucius hold the book in great esteem. All this has made it a richer system than other mere ‘fortune telling’ systems such as Tarot cards .

The original method used in ancient times to cast a hexagram was by using a bundle of 50 yarrow sticks shīcǎo (split into two piles six times to give the lines - see divination method section for a detailed guide). In the Tang dynasty a faster method using three coins was introduced. However the probabilities are not the same in the two methods. The system generates four possible results rather than two, instead of just yin and yang it produces both ‘continuous’ and ‘changing’ versions of yin and yang. Two readings are produced, one for the present and one for the ‘change’ representing either the past or future. The two readings together give 64x6 (384) possible readings which make it a very large and complex system.

Eight Trigrams

Each set of three lines a ‘trigram’ ( Bàguà has its own name and meaning. They are traditionally thought of as pairs heaven & earth; mountain & lake; water & fire; thunder & wind. See our yin-yang section for more on derivation and background.

Trigram and NameNameElementSeason and DirectionAssociations
duìLake zé or MarshLesser MetalAutumn, westMarsh; monkey; youngest or third daughter; joy; serenity; enjoying; sheep; children
qiánHeaven tiānMetalAutumn, north-westSky; lion; father; creative (all yang); energy; vitality; virility; dragon; horse; helpers
kǎnWater shuǐWaterMid-winter, northSnake; curves; flowing water; danger; sinking; pig; career
gènMountain shānLesser EarthLate winter, north-eastBear; third or youngest son; stillness; stopping; fruits; dog; rat; knowledge
zhènThunder léiWoodEarly spring, eastFlying dragon; eldest son; excitement; arousal; galloping horse; family
xùnWind fēng or WoodLesser WoodLate spring, south-eastWind; Phoenix; eldest daughter; gentle; flexible; growth; vegetation; wealth
Fire huǒFireSummer, southSecond or middle daughter; dependent; attaching; weaponry; drought; rooster; fame
kūnEarth EarthLate summer, south-westQilin (unicorn); mother; receptive; yielding (all yin); docility; mare; ox; marriage

Two trigrams together give a hexagram or gua of the Yi Jing.

Order of the I Ching Hexagrams

There are actually three Yi Jings, the best known is the most recent the Zhōu yì or ‘Change of Heaven’ from the Zhou dynasty which begins with the Heaven gua . The Liánshān ‘Link to Mountain’ on the other hand begins with Mountain and is attributed to the Red Emperor or Shennong a thousand years earlier. The third Guīcáng ‘Save in Earth’ ordering starts with ‘Earth’ and is attributed to the Yellow Emperor. However only the Zhouyi has survived intact and has the all important commentaries.

The Zhouyi ordering is also known as the ‘King Wen system of hexagrams’. It does not follow a mathematical progression. One might expect the binary nature of yin-yang to be reflected in a binary sequence so mathematically 111111 ( qián all yang) might be followed by 111110 ( gòu) gua 44 or by 011111 ( guài) gua 43. The ‘Ahead of Heaven’ ordering of the Shao Yong of the Song dynasty follows this strict binary order; but the King Wen arrangement is in pairs of inverses or negatives so qián is followed by 000000 ( kūn all yin). As qián is symmetric (it is its own inverse) its opposite gua ‘kun’ is chosen as its pair.

As a ‘Book of Changes’ it is appropriate that guas are ordered in transformed pairs. The next pair begins with 010001 ( zhūn) and its inverse is 100010 ( mēng) in this case the pair reverses the order. The arrangement of hexagrams has puzzled scholars for centuries as there are strong patterns within the ordering. As the original text was written so long ago the original symbolism and meaning has been lost and reconstruction is a matter of scholarly conjecture.

The ideal structure for a hexagram is for yin lines to occur at 2 and 4 but yang lines at 3 and 5 (counting lines from the bottom). The alternating nature of the ‘ideal’ figure highlights the Chinese desire for balance and counter-balance rather than a desire for pure yin or pure yang. The top two lines are associated with heaven (spirit), the middle two with people (mind) and the bottom two with earth (body)

The sequence is split into two unequal groups: the Upper Canon shàngjīng 1-30 (where yang is broadly dominate: the ‘Dao of Heaven’) and the Lower Canon xiàjīng 31-64 (where yin is broadly dominate: the ‘Dao of Humanity’).

Qián Initiating, Donator (Heaven); element: Metal; month: 4; opp. 2 inv. 1 mutual 1; associations: heaven, king, father, order, control
Kūn Responding, Receptor (Earth); element: Earth; month: 10; opp. 1 inv. 2 mutual 2; associations: earth, people, mother, support, docility
Zhūn Beginning, Inhibition (Water over Thunder); element: Water; month: 12; opp. 50 inv. 4 mutual 23; associations: initial difficulty
Méng Immaturity, Initiation (Mountain over Water); element: Earth; month: 1; opp. 49 inv. 3 mutual 24; associations: inexperience
 Needing, Halting (Water over Heaven); element: Water; month: 2; opp. 35 inv. 6 mutual 38; associations: procrastination, delay
Sòng Contention, Strife (Heaven over Water); element: Metal; month: 3; opp. 36 inv. 5 mutual 37; associations: litigation
Shī Multitude, Mass action (Earth over Water); element: Earth; month: 4; opp. 13 inv. 8 mutual 24; associations: army, teacher
 Union, Coherence (Water over Earth); element: Water; month: 4; opp. 14 inv. 7 mutual 23; associations: concord, assembly
小畜Xiǎo Xù Small accumulation, Taming (Wind over Heaven); element: Wood; month: 4; opp. 16 inv. 10 mutual 38; associations: moderation
 Fulfillment, Slow advance (Heaven over Lake); element: Metal; month: 6; opp. 15 inv. 9 mutual 37; associations: tread, circumspection
Tài Advance, Elevation (Earth over Heaven); element: Earth; month: 1; opp. 12 inv. 12 mutual 54; associations: prosperity, geniality
 Hindrance, Stagnation (Heaven over Earth); element: Metal; month: 7; opp. 11 inv. 11 mutual 53; associations: bad, autumn, retrogression
同人Tóng Rén Fellowship, Aggregation (Heaven over Fire); element: Metal; month: 7; opp. 7 inv. 14 mutual 44; associations: community, all together
大有Dà Yǒu Great harvest, Profusion (Fire over Heaven); element: Fire; month: 5; opp. 8 inv. 13 mutual 43; associations: opulence
Qiān Humility, Modesty (Earth over Mountain); element: Earth; month: 12; opp. 10 inv. 16 mutual 40; associations: hidden wealth
 Delight, Inspiration (Thunder over Earth); element: Wood; month: 3; opp. 9 inv. 15 mutual 39; associations: enthusiasm, satisfaction
Suí Pursuit, Sucession (Lake over Thunder); element: Metal; month: 2; opp. 18 inv. 18 mutual 53; associations: follower
 Decay, Corruption (Mountain over Wind); element: Earth; month: 3; opp. 17 inv. 17 mutual 54; associations: poison, illness
Lín Approach, Convergence (Earth over Lake); element: Earth; month: 12; opp. 33 inv. 20 mutual 24; associations: acost
Guān Contemplation, Vision (Wind over Earth); element: Wood; month: 8; opp. 34 inv. 19 mutual 23; associations: view, radiation
噬嗑Shì Kè Eradicating, Gnawing (Fire over Thunder); element: Fire; month: 10; opp. 48 inv. 22 mutual 39; associations: crowds, courts
 Elegance, Pattern (Mountain over Fire); element: Earth; month: 8; opp. 47 inv. 21 mutual 40; associations: ornamental
 Peeling off, Dispersion (Mountain over Earth); element: Earth; month: 9; opp. 43 inv. 24 mutual 2; associations: flay, collapse
 Turning back, Return (Earth over Thunder); element: Earth; month: 11; opp. 44 inv. 23 mutual 2; associations: end of year
无妄Wú Wàng Honesty, Unforeseen (Heaven over Thunder); element: Metal; month: 9; opp. 46 inv. 26 mutual 53; associations: not false, not reckless
大畜Dà Xù Great nourishment, Impeded (Mountain over Heaven); element: Earth; month: 8; opp. 45 inv. 25 mutual 54; associations: obstruction
 Nourishment, Nutrition (Mountain over Thunder); element: Earth; month: 11; opp. 28 inv. 27 mutual 2; associations: mouth, jaws
大过Dà Guò Excess, Surpassing (Lake over Wind); element: Metal; month: 10; opp. 27 inv. 28 mutual 1; associations: strangeness, top-heavy
Kǎn Darkness, Flow (Water); element: Water; month: Winter Solstice; opp. 30 inv. 29 mutual 27; associations: torrent of water
 Brightness, Adherence (Fire); element: Fire; month: Summer Solstice; opp. 29 inv. 30 mutual 28; associations: mesh of a net
Xián Influence, Reaction (Lake over Mountain); element: Metal; month: 5; opp. 41 inv. 32 mutual 44; associations: all, interweaving, wooing
Héng Endurance, Perseverance (Thunder over Wind); element: Wood; month: 7; opp. 42 inv. 31 mutual 43; associations: constant
Dùn Retreat, Regression (Heaven over Mountain); element: Metal; month: 6; opp. 19 inv. 34 mutual 44; associations: hiding, conceal, withdrawal
大壮Dà Zhuàng Great strength, Powerful (Thunder over Heaven); element: Wood; month: 2; opp. 20 inv. 33 mutual 43; associations: power
Jìn Gain ground, Rapid advance (Fire over Earth); element: Fire; month: 2; opp. 5 inv. 36 mutual 39; associations: rise
明夷Míng Yí Darkening, Overshadow (Earth over Fire); element: Earth; month: 9; opp. 6 inv. 35 mutual 40; associations: lack of appreciation
家人Jiā Rén Domesticity, Relationship (Wind over Fire); element: Wood; month: 5; opp. 40 inv. 38 mutual 64; associations: family members
Kuí Diversity, Opposition (Fire over Lake); element: Fire; month: 12; opp. 39 inv. 37 mutual 63; associations: separation
Jiǎn  Hardship, Obstruction (Water over Mountain); element: Water; month: 11; opp. 38 inv. 40 mutual 64; associations: lameness, retardation
Xiè Relief, Disentangle (Thunder over Water); element: Wood; month: 2; opp. 37 inv. 39 mutual 63; associations: liberation, dissection, analysis
Sǔn Reduction, Diminution (Mountain over Lake); element: Earth; month: 7; opp. 31 inv. 42 mutual 24; associations: spoil, hurt, taxation, subtraction
 Gain, Increase (Wind over Thunder); element: Wood; month: 1; opp. 32 inv. 41 mutual 23; associations: benefit, addition
Guài Breakthrough, Eruption (Lake over Heaven); element: Metal; month: 3; opp. 23 inv. 44 mutual 1; associations: decision, settlement, release of strain
Gòu Encountering, Reaction (Heaven over Wind); element: Metal; month: 5; opp. 24 inv. 43 mutual 1; associations: copulation, fusion, meeting
Cuì Gathering, Condensation (Lake over Earth); element: Metal; month: 8; opp. 26 inv. 46 mutual 53; associations: thicket, conglomeration, consolidation
Shēng Growing up, Ascent (Earth over Wind); element: Earth; month: 12; opp. 25 inv. 45 mutual 54; associations: promotion, career progression
Kùn Exhaustion, Confinement (Lake over Water); element: Metal; month: 9; opp. 22 inv. 48 mutual 37; associations: straightened, distress
Jǐng Replenish, Source (Water over Wind); element: Water; month: 5; opp. 21 inv. 47 mutual 38; associations: dependable
 Renewal, Revolution (Lake over Fire); element: Metal; month: 3; opp. 4 inv. 50 mutual 44; associations: moulting of skin, change skins
Dǐng Creation, Containment (Fire over Wind); element: Fire; month: 6; opp. 3 inv. 49 mutual 43; associations: cooking vessel, cauldron
Zhèn Enactment, Excitation (Thunder); element: Wood; month: Spring Equinox; opp. 57 inv. 52 mutual 39; associations: thunder, earthquake
Gèn Stillness, Immobility (Mountain); element: Earth; month: 10; opp. 58 inv. 51 mutual 40; associations: limitation, stability
Jiàn Gradual development, Progression (Wind over Mountain); element: Wood; month: 1; opp. 54 inv. 54 mutual 64; associations: steady advance
归妹Guī Mèi Marrying Maiden, Union (Thunder over Lake); element: Wood; month: 9; opp. 53 inv. 53 mutual 63; associations: marriage
Fēng Plentitude, Abundance (Thunder over Fire); element: Wood; month: 6; opp. 59 inv. 56 mutual 28; associations: prosperity
 Journeying, Wandering (Fire over Mountain); element: Fire; month: 4; opp. 60 inv. 55 mutual 28; associations: strangers, merchants
Xùn Submission, Acquiescence (Wind); element: Wood; month: 8; opp. 51 inv. 58 mutual 38; associations: wind penetration
Duì Joy, Serenity (Lake); element: Metal; month: Autumn Equinox; opp. 52 inv. 57 mutual 37; associations: sea, pleasure
Huàn Dispersion, Dissolution (Wind over Water); element: Wood; month: 6; opp. 55 inv. 60 mutual 27; associations: swelling, irregular
Jié Restriction, Regulation (Water over Lake); element: Water; month: 7; opp. 56 inv. 59 mutual 27; associations: mediation, section, regular division
中孚Zhōng Fú Sincerity, Truth (Wind over Lake); element: Wood; month: 11; opp. 62 inv. 61 mutual 27; associations: confidence, inner strength
小过Xiǎo Guò Small preponderance, Overstep (Thunder over Mountain); element: Wood; month: 1; opp. 61 inv. 62 mutual 28; associations: surfeit
既济Jì Jì Sated, Consumation (Water over Fire); element: Water; month: 10; opp. 64 inv. 64 mutual 64; associations: completion, perfect order
未济Wèi Jì Almost complete, Unfinished (Fire over Water); element: Fire; month: 11; opp. 63 inv. 63 mutual 63; associations: disorder, just short of accomplishment


No.The hexagram number in the King Wen ordering of the Hexagrams.
GuaThe Chinese character, pinyin and old seal script form of the hexagram (gua).
NameTwo suggested translations for the gua in English. This is tricky as translators choose different words. The name has a link to a page that provides a full description of each gua.
CompositionThe names of the two trigrams that make up the hexagram, these often give a strong hint on interpretation.
ElementThe Chinese element associated with the gua.
MonthChinese lunar month number associated with the gua, or else event in solar year.
Opp.The number of the Opposite gua, that is the one where each yao is changed yin to yang or yang to yin.
Inv.The number of the Inverse gua, where the hexagram is turned on its head.
Mut.A re-arrangement of the lines and selective inversion give a related or Mutual gua.
AssociationsSome of the known associations of the hexagram.

Find a hexagram

Because the hexagrams in the King Wen ordering are not placed in numerical order it can take time to find a hexagram. This table lists all the hexagrams ordered by the two trigrams that make them up. The top trigram is along the top and the bottom trigram is on the left side. Simply follow the row and column to where they intersect and click on the gua link for more information about the hexagram.


Qián [1]

Dà zhuàng [34]

Xū [5]

Dà xù [26]

Tài [11]

Xiǎo xù [9]

Dà yǒu [14]

Guài [43]

Wú wàng [25]

Zhèn [51]

Zhūn [3]

Yí [27]

Fù [24]

Yì [42]

Shì kè [21]

Suí [17]

Sòng [6]

Xiè [40]

Kǎn [29]

Méng [4]

Shī [7]

Huàn [59]

Wèi jì [64]

Kùn [47]

Dùn [33]

Xiǎo guò [62]

Jiǎn [39]

Gèn [52]

Qiān [15]

Jiàn [53]

Lǚ [56]

Xián [31]

Pǐ [12]

Yù [16]

Bǐ [8]

Bō [23]

Kūn [2]

Guān [20]

Jìn [35]

Cuì [45]

Gòu [44]

Héng [32]

Jǐng [48]

Gǔ [18]

Shēng [46]

Xùn [57]

Dǐng [50]

Dà guò [28]

Tóng rén [13]

Fēng [55]

Jì jì [63]

Bì [22]

Míng yí [36]

Jiā rén [37]

Lí [30]

Gé [49]

Lǚ [10]

Guī mèi [54]

Jié [60]

Sǔn [41]

Lín [19]

Zhōng fú [61]

Kuí [38]

Duì [58]

I Ching Transformation

The authentic methods for casting a hexagram give four not two outcomes for each line of the hexagram. These are yin, yang, changing yin and changing yang. If any of the lines are 'changing' this gives two hexagrams, the first using the initial choice and the second where all ‘changing yin’ lines are changed to yang and all ‘changing yang’ lines are changed to yin. The commentaries of the Yi Jing only give a commentary when there is a single changing line. In the less likely case that more than one line changing skill is required to interpret the meaning, so instead the hexagram is often cast again.

Ten Wings shíyì

The ten original commentaries or 'wings' are split into upper and lower sections:

1,2 : These commentaries are attributed to King Wen of Zhou. They are called the 序卦 Xù guà zhuàn and Tuàn zhuàn
3,4 : The symbolism explained by the Duke of Zhou and an explanation of the lines. Xiàng zhuàn
5,6 : The Great Treatise Dà zhuàn, the main commentary on the guas. Xì cí zhuàn
7 : A meditation on the meaning on the 1st and 2nd guas (Heaven and Earth) and how they evolve into/generate all the remaining hexagrams. Called the Wén yán zhuàn
8: The ‘Discourse on the trigrams’ looks at the seasons of the year and the compass points. Shuō guà zhuàn
9 : Looks at the rationale for the sequence of the guas, and muses as to why each gua naturally follows on from another. 杂卦 Zá guà zhuàn
10 : Summarizes the meanings of the guas in a simple rhyme but does not follow the King Wen sequence.

The text and commentaries are hard to follow because they allude to unknown events and customs in the distant past. Some of them are put into poetic form with rhymes. This allows a modern reader to interpret the meaning in different ways.

The Yi Jing Universe

The all embracing nature of the Yi Jing can be seen from the associations of hexagrams. The lunar cycle follows through the hexagrams 51; 58; 1 (new moon); 57; 52 to 2 (full moon). While the daily cycle passes through 24, 19, 11, 34, 43, 1 (noon), 44, 33, 12, 20, 23, 2 (midnight).

In ancient China the Yi Jing was all pervasive, deciding what should be done and when; even the ministries of the government were associated with a particular gua. For example General administration (gua 1); Ministry of Education (2); Ministry of Rites (51); Executive (52; 57 and 30); Ministry of Justice (58) and Ministry of Public Works (29). The Yi Jing was consulted on all decisions in the Imperial system. In this way a single gua has a great number of important associations and forms a complex network with many related concepts. The Yi Jing provided the master plan for organizing and understanding everything.

See also