Liaoning, China

Position of Liaoning in China
ProvinceLiáo nìng 'distant better'
Short name Liáo
Population42.591 million (3.01%) [14th] comparison table
Area146,000 km2 [56,371 mile2] (1.52%) [21st]
GDP58,967 (10.04%) [17th]
NeighborsJilin Hebei Inner Mongolia North Korea
Others or just click on the map
Beijing Tianjin Shanghai Hong Kong Xinjiang Tibet Qinghai Gansu Inner Mongolia Heilongjiang Jilin Liaoning Yunnan Sichuan Guangxi Hainan Taiwan Guangdong Guizhou Chongqing Ningxia Shandong Fujian Zhejiang Shaanxi Shanxi Hebei Henan Hunan Hubei Jiangxi Anhui Jiangsu

Liaoning is the southernmost of the Manchurian provinces and holds a vital strategic position in northern China. One of the main lines of the Great Wall (the Han rather than the Ming version) snakes itself through the province. The area has rapidly developed from Song dynasty times onwards.

Liaoning, Shenyang, modern housing, lake
Aerial view of Shenyang City, Liaoning
Liaoning, Shenyang, Mao Zedong, statue, PRC
Large epoxy resin statue of Mao Zedong Shenyang


Shenyang was the Manchu capital (‘Mukden’ its Manchu name is still sometimes used) and has many historical sites within the large industrial city. By some measures Shenyang is amongst the most densely populated cities in the world. Emphasizing the importance of railways to the city and the area's development, Shenyang has a railway museum. There is a Manchu palace which is a small scale replica of the Forbidden City completed in 1636. Nearby are tombs of the Manchu kings (the East and North tombs) before they founded the Qing dynasty in China. The city is famous for a colossal epoxy statue of Mao Zedong standing in Zhongshan Square. The Xiuyuan district has Manchu traditional housing and also a museum of Manchu history and culture.

Shenyang, Liaoning, gateway
Shenyang Gateway

Places to visit in Liaoning

Jinzhou on the railway line west to Hubei is famous for its dinosaur fossils. Anshan is an industrial city producing vast amounts of iron and steel. Nearby is the scenic spot of Qianshan thousand lotus mountain which has many pavilions and temples among pine trees. The industrial city of Fushun has coal deposits nearby and is known for cement and petrochemical industries. Many of the large cities have a heavy industrial feel, emphasized by the flat terrain of the north-east plain.

Liaoning, Shenyang, Manchu, Forbidden City, palace
Dazheng Hall at the center of Shenyang Imperial Palace, Liaoning built 1626CE

Dalian (also known as Dairen) is a major port for the industrial output of the north-eastern provinces rivaling Tianjin and often compared to Shanghai for its cosmopolitan and entrepreneurial feel. Laotieshan Nature Park is at the tip of the peninsula; while Bingyu Valley on the south side of the peninsular has fine scenery. The port of Lushun can be visited but only with a permit because it is an active naval base. There are seaside resorts scattered along the Liaodong Sea coast including Xingcheng with a Ming architectural style and Jinshitan beach which is a popular tourist spot. Liaoning's rocky coast has many fine beaches and fish restaurants.

Near to Yixian is the Fengguo Temple built a thousand years ago, and there is the Ancient City of Tayingzi close to Fuxin. Benxi has dramatic scenic caves. Close by is the Tiecha Mountain sacred to Daoists. Dandong stands close to the border with North Korea and has a portion of the restored Great Wall going up the mountain. Close by are the scenic Dagushan mountains as well as the Wulongbei Hot Springs. Many ethnic Korean people live in the area close to the border with North Korea.

Qing dynasty, tomb
The five sacrificial stone vessels at Qing Dynasty tomb. The five utensils are two candlesticks, two vases and an incense burner. Shenyang Manchu tomb complex

Liaoning History

The mountainous peninsula of Liaoning was the scene of a dispute between Russia and Japan in the early 19th century. The city of Lushun lies at its tip, and was known as ‘Port Arthur’ by Westerners as the British named it after a naval officer William Arthur . Port Arthur was overrun in November 1894 by the Japanese, In 1895 Russia pushed out the Japanese and took over the area. The Battle of Port Arthur, February 9th 1904 between Japan and Russia resulted in Japanese victory. Rapid railway and industrial development followed the Japanese occupation in 1895; it remained under Japanese influence as part of Manchuria/Manchuguo until 1945. The 'Mukden Incident ' of 1931 was a ruse to validate further Japanese control. Many people moved from overcrowded Shandong into the area in the period 1870-1950 – the ‘Chuang Guandong ’.

There are now plans to construct a huge 76 miles [123 kms] bridge and tunnel across the shallow Bohai Sea to Shandong.

Liaoning, benxi, autumn
Autumn landscape of Yanghugou Village, Liaoning

Liaoning Geography

The North China plain has brief warm summers and long cold winters giving limited scope for food production except in the coastal area. It is famous for its vast apple and pear orchards. Liaoning has a wide variety of natural resources: coal; oil shale; iron; lead and even uranium. It has 25% of China's iron ore reserves and second only to Shanxi in coal deposits. Manchu people form a significant minority and also Korean people close to the Korean border.


Shenyang Taoxian International Airport 沈阳桃仙国际机场 SHE IATA / ZYTX ICAO
The airport has 1 terminal and is located 12.4 miles (20.0 kms) from Shenyang. Live Flight information , rank in China 25
International Links to :Japan Korea
See map of location Shenyang Taoxian International Airport
Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport 大连周水子国际机场 DLC IATA / ZYTL ICAO
The airport has 1 terminal and is located 5.0 miles (8.0 kms) from Dalian. Live Flight information , Airport information , rank in China 23
International Links to :Japan Korea Germany
See map of location Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport
Map of Liaoning,Liaoning province map Jilin Hebei Inner Mongolia North Korea Show Key
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Liaoning Climate

Climate Chart for Liaoning
Climate Key
Major CitiesPopulation
Anshan 1,199,275
Benxi 987,717
Chaoyang 410,005
Dalian 4,087,733
Dandong 631,973
Fushun 1,400,646
Fuxin 689,050
Huludao葫芦 482,818
Jinzhou 604,269
Liaoyang 687,890
Panjin盘锦 489,421
Shenyang 6,255,921
Tieling 333,907
Wafangdian 250,591
Yingkou 591,159

City populations for 2012, Province statistics National Bureau of Statistics 2014

See also