Song Dynasty 宋朝 960 - 1279
The Song dynasty is divided into Northern and Southern periods. This reflects the incursion of tribes from the north, causing the empire to contract south of the Yangzi and the capital to move from Kaifeng to Hangzhou.
Despite the loss of the extensive lands to the west the Song dynasty represented another blossoming of prosperity and cultural endeavor. The founder of the dynasty, Zhao Kuangyin (aka Taizu), took the best parts of the existing administrative system and ditched others; for example it was no longer a capital offense to disagree with the Emperor. He came to power apparently reluctantly, being pushed forward by military commanders as their leader in a move reminiscent of the ascension of Roman Emperor Claudius ➚. He reduced the power of provincial governors and disbanded the army that had brought him to power. By his death in 976 he ruled most of southern China except for Fujian and Zhejiang with very little armed conflict. To remove the usual instability brought about by reigns of child Emperors the throne passed to his brother not his son. During the dynasty, the population rose to over 100 million; great cities with over one million people were founded and others extended. The capital Kaifeng became even more populous than the former Tang capital of Chang'an. Painting; calligraphy and philosophy achieved new levels of sophistication; and the Emperors themselves became skilled in these arts. At this time industry, commerce and agriculture in China were far in advance of the rest of the World. Blast furnaces produced quality iron; gunpowder started to be used in weaponry; water mills powered textile mills.With forests already heavily depleted coal starts to be used as fuel. Paper money, controlled by the state, was printed for the first time. Song porcelain remains the most highly prized of ceramics of all time. Five able Southern Song emperors ruled the empire wisely. The nation no longer saw itself as purely agrarian, it was developing new technologies and commercial activities.
Rise of Confucian doctrine
Confucian doctrine displaced the dominance of Buddhism in the Tang dynasty at the Imperial court. Song dynasty rulers succeeded in living closer to the Confucian ideals than any other dynasty. The philosopher Zhu Xi ➚ re-invigorated the Confucian canon with a more consistent interpretation of the ancient texts. The 'Neo-Confucian' philosophy extended Confucian thinking into areas away from ethics into such things as cosmology and metaphysics. The state bureaucracy grew in size and complexity and the Imperial examination system was perfected with many poorer students able to become high ranking officials based purely on scholastic merit. Literature blossomed, with great poets such as Su Shi producing classic poems. In the sciences, achievements included the invention of matrix algebra and the discovery of magnetism.
An Elegant Party (detail), an outdoor painting of a small Chinese banquet hosted by the emperor for scholar-officials from the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Although painted in the Song period, it is most likely a reproduction of an earlier Tang Dynasty (618-907) work of art. The painting is attributed to Emperor Huizong of Song (r. 1100?1125 AD). Image by PericlesofAthens ➚ available under a Creative Commons license ➚.
Loss of the North
Emperor Huizong (1101-1125) who was more interested in art than armies, presided over the loss of Northern China to the northern Jin dynasty. The early Song emperors had tried but failed to subdue the Qidan kingdom to the north. Attack came from the Western Xia (or XiXia) in the north-west ; the Qidan Khitan WG (Liao dynasty) and the Jin (Jurchen) nomadic peoples of Manchuria. They took control of the open border regions in the north. The Qidan had been a regional power based in Liaoning from 936-1125 before being defeated by an alliance between Song and Jin peoples. The alliance proved disastrous as the Jin then overran the Song capital Kaifeng (then known as Bianjing or Dongjing) and captured Huizong and the imperial family. The remnants of the Song administration fled south to continue as the Southern Song dynasty with capital at Lin'an (now called Hangzhou). The name Lin'an means ‘Temporary Peace’, and also Xingzai ‘Temporary residence’ reflect the desire to recapture northern China. The Southern Song remained a peaceful and prosperous culture exploiting the rich agricultural land of the Yangzi valley. Many northerners moved south, and the present day Hakka people of Guangdong and Guangxi are believed to be descended from them. The importance of the sea for trade, now that access to the Silk Road was blocked, led to advances in ship-building, producing ships up to 300 feet [91 meters] long with up to 1,000 oarsmen. This was made possible by the technology that Arab sea traders brought with them. A trade triangle developed between China, India and Indonesia with spice as the most valuable cargo. A Jewish community set up in Kaifeng, emphasizes the open nature of Song society. The inventions of the magnetic compass proved invaluable for navigating long sea journeys, a secret zealously protected by the Chinese. The compass also enabled accurate land maps to be drawn up. Envoys were sent out to foreign lands and reports of their travels were published in China; as by this time China was printing extensively on paper. Indeed printing not only provided a wide range of books for scholars but also manuals on agriculture and technology for ordinary people. Availability of printed books led to surge in learning.
Palace Examination at Kaifeng, Song Dynasty, China.
Image available under a Creative Commons license ➚
Jin Dynasty 金朝 1115 - 1234
The capture of Kaifeng led to the formation of the short-lived Northern Jin dynasty by the Khitan people from the north-east. As the Song dynasty made up of Han Chinese continued in the south it is not normally listed as a Chinese dynasty. While the Mongols were building their unstoppable force that grew out of Mongolia to the north, the Jin served as a buffer zone protecting the Song Empire to the south. Their Imperial capital was built at Zhongdu (now Beijing) (the first dynasty to do so), and they took to traditional Chinese ways honoring Confucius just as much as in Southern China. To foreign embassies there was little to distinguish the two Chinese Imperial courts at Zhongdu and Hangzhou. The Jin dynasty ended in an echo of the events that formed it. The Mongols allied themselves with the Song against the Jin in 1234. When the alliance triumphed and captured Kaifeng from the Jin it was the Mongols who turned on their former Song allies and eventually beat them. The Mongols under Genghis Khan took advantage of internal rebellions to establish a new unified empire that went onto eventually conquer much of the known world and the whole of China - the Yuan dynasty.
Xixia (Western Xia) Kingdom
The Western Xia kingdom 西夏 xī xià was founded by a tribe of Tangut people who retained strong links to the Tibetans and Mongolians. It was established in Ningxia 1038-1227 ruling over many Han Chinese settlers and controlling the strategic Silk Road. The Tangut tribe, called Dangxiang 党项 in China, had formed one of the small northern states in the Five Dynasties period and then grew to control parts of Gansu and Shaanxi.
西夏一号陵陵塔，后为二号陵陵塔 August 2013. Two tombs of the Western Xia at Helan Shan, Ningxia. Image by Jayavarman available under a Creative Commons license ➚.
The kingdom retained a Tibetan script based on the Chinese model and used Confucian guided administration and education. Buddhism was the main religion. They had an effective army with well trained cavalry enabling them to resist conquest from the neighboring Song Chinese. Their stranglehold over the Silk route trade forced the Song look to the southern sea ports for new trade routes. In 984 the Western Xia mounted an expansionist campaign and formed an alliance with the Liao kingdom against the Song.
In 1038 the Xixia ruler Li Yuanhao declared himself Chinese Emperor with capital at Xongqingfu (now called Yinchuan, Ningxia) and broke off the alliance with Liao. They named themselves ‘Western Xia’ after the ancient Xia dynasty but are not listed as a Chinese dynasty. The Northern Song attempted to subjugate them but failed leading to the signing of an ignominious treaty with the Xixia in 1044. The Song were forced into massive military expenditure to hold them at bay. Internal feuds then weakened the Xixia kingdom that covered Ningxia; Shaanxi and Gansu. In 1205-6 the Mongols invaded, leveling cities and abducting people and stock. The Xixia sought an alliance with the Jin (successors of the Liao) against the Mongols but this proved ineffective. They were wiped out by the Mongols by 1227 and little evidence of their culture remains, even their language was lost for centuries. Historians estimate only 1% of the population survived the massacres that took place. Genghis Khan died during his campaign against them and it was his death that delayed the Mongol onslaught of the remaining portion of China that was still ruled by the Southern Song dynasty.
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